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Handbook for Writers

 

Handbook for Writers: Excellence in Literature

Handbook for Writers: Excellence in Literature

Writer’s Handbook for High School Students

Finally, the handbook is here!

Paperback, 8.5 x 11″, 418 pages, $39

The handbook is a collaborative effort–think Strunk & White, except this one is Johnston & Campbell. Mr. Johnston is a retired college professor who generously granted me permission to adapt his wonderful handbook to fit the needs of the Excellence in Literature audience. I’ve added things, updated examples, and converted Canadian styles to standard, current American usage.

I think you’ll find it a very useful part of your homeschool, because it’s not just for literature study, but it’s useful for all the writing and even speaking your student will need to do. If your student studies debate, the chapters on constructing an argument are very helpful. The sample formats for topic sentences are like a blueprint for success. This is truly a useful book.

There’s a lot in the handbook. No handbook covers every single thing (though the Chicago Manual of Style, a $65 handbook for professional editors, comes pretty close), but the Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writersdoes cover a lot of ground. At risk of making this an absurdly long page, I’ll paste the table of contents below. Page numbers are subject to change, but everything should at least be listed. It’s a lot of information!

Contents
Introduction 25
Part 1 Introduction to Essays and Arguments 27
2.0 Arguments: Some Simple First Principles  28
2.1 Initial Comments 28
2.2 Trivial Arguments over Matters of Established Fact 28
2.3 More Complex and Interesting Arguments 29
2.4 The Importance of Reason 31
2.5 An Overview of The Major Tools 32
2.6 Exercise 1: Recognizing the Form of Simple Arguments 34
2.7 Some Brain Teasers 35

3.0 Setting Up The Argument: Definition (1)  36
3.1 Defining the Argument: Some General Points 37
3.2 Two Simple Examples 38
3.3 Some Sample Openings 40
3.4 The Importance of Defining a Focus 41
3.5 The Importance of Defining a Thesis 44
3.6 Exercises in Recognizing Potentially Useful Thesis Statements 46
3.7 Some Hints on Forming Good Thesis Statements 50
3.8 The Start of an Outline for the Argument 52
3.9 Some Problems with Introductory Paragraphs 53
3.10 Exercise With Sample Opening Paragraphs 54

4.0 Definition (2): Defining Key Terms  58
4.1 The Importance of Certain Key Terms in the Argument 58
4.2 Organizing Definitions 58
Disputed Definitions 61
4.3 Self-Serving Definitions 62
4.5 Exercise 4: Definitions 63
4.6 Descriptive and Narrative Definitions 64
4.7 Extended Definitions 65
4.8 Some Summary Points on Definition 67
4.9 Defining the Scope of the Essay 69

5.0 Deduction And Induction  70
5.1 General Comments 70
5.2 Deduction: Some Points to Observe 70
5.3 The Opening General Principle 71
5.4 The Importance of Step 2 in a Deductive Argument 73
5.5 The Importance of Deduction in Falsification Theories of Science 75
5.6 The Deductive Structure of Listing the Alternatives 76
5.7 The Problem of Hidden or Misleading Assumptions 78
5.8 Exercise in Hidden Assumptions 79
5.9 False Dilemma 80
5.10 Overstating or Understating the Conclusion 81
5.11 Analogies 82
5.12 Induction 84
5.13 Making Inductive Generalizations 85
5.14 Exercise in Simple Inductive Argument 86
5.15 Some Potential Problems in Inductive Arguments 88
5.16 Exercise in Evaluating Short Arguments 89
5.17 Induction in Arguments on Literary Topics 90
5.18 Deduction and Induction in Combination 91

6.0 Organizing The Main Body Of An Argument (I)  93
6.1 General Remarks 93
6.2 The Length of the Argument: Approximate Paragraph Count 94
6.3 Selecting the Topics for the Argument 95
6.4 Rethinking the Focus and Thesis of the Argument 96
6.5 Developing an Outline: Topic Sentences 97
6.6 The Commonest Error in Topic Sentences 99
6.7 Exercise in Topic Sentences 100
6.8 Drawing Up a Simple Outline (for a Short Essay) 102
Essay 1: On Hamlet 102
Essay 2: On Intellectual Property Violations 102
6.9 Checking the Outline 103
6.10 Some Sample Formats for Topic Sentences 104
A. Standard Format: Interpretative Assertion (Opinion) 104
B. Standard Format Emphasized: Interpretative Assertion Followed by Clarification, Extension, or Emphasis. 104
C. Question: Simple Direct Question for Emphasis 105
D. Double Question: Two Questions, the Second Expanding on the First, for Greater Emphasis 105
E. Statement of Fact and Question: Directing the Reader to a Fact in the Argument and Raising an Issue About It 106
F. Statement of Fact and a Double Question 106
6.11 Topic Sentences to Avoid 107

7.0 Organizing The Main Body Of The Argument (Ii)  107
7.1 Simple Additive Structure 108
7.2 Acknowledging the Opposition 109
7.3 The Structure of a Comparative Argument 113
General Observations on Comparative Arguments 113
Sample Openings to a Comparative Essay 113
The Structure of a Comparative Argument 115
7.4 Additional Samples of Outlines for Comparative Essays 116

8.0 Paragraph Structure  118
8.1 Paragraphs in the Main Body of the Argument 119
Sample Paragraph A: Deductive Structure 119
Sample Paragraph B: Inductive Structure 120
8.2 Paragraphs Making Inductive Argument 121
Sources of Evidence 121
Interpreting Evidence 122
8.3 Some Important Symptoms of Poor Argumentative Paragraphs 125
8.4 Paragraph Unity 125
8.5 Paragraph Coherence 127
A Useful Blueprint for Achieving Paragraph Coherence 127
Transition Words as Logical Indicators 129
A Catalogue of Transition Words 130
An Exercise in Transition Words 131
8.6 Concluding Paragraphs 132
Conclusion A (from an essay arguing that Hamlet’s character is not that of the ideal prince but is badly flawed) 134
Conclusion B (from an essay arguing that the failure of the Meech Lake Accord was a direct result of the ineptitude of the federal government) 134
Conclusion C (from an essay arguing that the only rational solution to our narcotics problem is to legalize all drugs) 134
8.7 Recommendations 136
Sample Conclusion and Recommendation Ending to a Paper 136

9.0 Paragraph Functions  138
9.1 The Basic Functions of Paragraphs 138
9.2 Exercise in Topic Sentences Announcing the Function of a Paragraph 140
9.3 Organizing an Essay by Paragraph Function 141
9.4 Paragraphs of Illustration, Narration, and Description 141
Inserting Paragraphs of Narration, Description, or Analysis in the Middle of An Argument 142
Inserting a Detailed Example into the Argument 143
Essay A 144
Essay B 144
Example A (from an essay arguing that Descartes’s argument is problematic but interesting) 145
Example B (from an essay arguing that the Chipko movement is a significant indication of the power of uneducated women to affect government policy) 145
Example C (from an essay arguing that Thoreau’s Walden is a fine example of American Romanticism) 145
Example D (in an essay arguing that a particular legal judgement was correct) 146
Setting Up a Narrative or Descriptive “Hook” 147
9.5 Organizing an Argument in Paragraph Clusters 149
Research Paper A: The Imagist Movement in Modern Poetry 149
Research Paper 2: Modern Medicine and the Law 151
Research Paper C: An Essay on William James’s The Varieties of Religious Experience 153

10.0 Writing Arguments About Literary Works  155
10.1 Reading Beneath the Surface 156
Reading Stories 156
Reading Arguments 160
10.2 From Reading to Shaping An Evaluative Argument 161
Building on Our Own Reactions 161
Using Comparisons 163
10.3 Evaluative Argument versus Prose Summaries 164
10.4 Structuring an Argumentative Essay on Fiction 165
Essay A: On John Steinbeck’s Short Story “The Chrysanthemums” 166
Essay B: Short Essay on Homer 167
Essay C: Short Essay on a Shakespearean Play 168
A Common Mistake in the Structure of An Argument About Literature 169
10.6 Structuring a Short Essay on the Evaluation of an Argument 170
A Note on the Process of Evaluating an Argument 170
Evaluate Arguments from the Inside not the Outside 172
Select the Focus Carefully 175
Check Carefully Any Appeals to Context 176
Use Counterexamples Intelligently 177
10.7 Some Sample Outlines for Short Essays Evaluating Arguments 180
10.8 Writing Short Arguments About Lyric Poetry 183
Reading a Lyric Poem 183
Structuring a Short Interpretative Essay on a Lyric Poem 185
Sample Introduction and Outline for Essay A on a Lyric Poem 186
Sample Outline for Essay B 187
Some Do’s and Don’t For Essays on Lyric Poems 188
10.9 Sample Essay on a Lyric Poem 189
Bob Dylan’s “The Tambourine Man”: An Interpretation 189
Notes on the Sample Essay 191
10.10 Writing Reviews of Fine and Performing Arts Events 192
Sample Short Review of a Dramatic Production 196

11.0 Sample Outlines For Essays And Research Papers  199
A. Short Book Review 199
B. Short Essay Reviewing a Live Drama Production 200
D. Short Essay on a Long Fiction 201
E. Short Essay Evaluating an Argument in Another Text 202
F. Longer Essay or Research Paper on a Social Issue 203
G. Longer Essay or Research Paper on the Historical Significance of an Idea, Book, Person, Event, or Discovery 206
H. Research Paper on a Cultural Movement 207

Introduction to Part 2: Guide to Style and Usage

Phrases, Clauses, Sentences 211
1.1 The Clause 211
1.2 Sentence Fragments 212
1.3 Other Forms of Sentence Fragmentation 212
1.3.1 Dependent Clauses 213
1.3.2 Which, Who, Whose 213
1.3.3 Present Participles 213
1.3.4 Citing Examples 213
1.3.5 Use of Bulleted Lists 213
1.3.6 In Regard /In Response 214
1.3.7 That 214
1.3.8 Quotations 214
1.4 Sentences are either Statements, Questions, Commands, or Exclamations 214
1.4.1 Direct Questions 215
1.4.2 Question as Imperative 215
1.5 Indirect Question 215
1.6 Question Marks in a Quotation 215
1.7 Exclamation Points 216
1.8 Subject/Verb Agreement 216
1.9 Compound Subject 216
1.10 Compound Subject as a Single Unit 217
1.11 Plural Forms that take Singular Subjects 217
1.12 Group Nouns 217
1.13 Consistency 217
1.14 There Is / There Was 218
1.15 Indefinite Pronouns 218
1.16 Number 218
1.17 Compound Subjects 219
1.18 Alternate Subjects 219
1.19 Passive Verbs 219
1.20 Verb Consistency 221
1.21 Use of Passive Expression 221
1.22 Scientific / Technical Writing 222
1.23 Avoid Passive Construction 222
1.24 Avoid the Passive To Use / To Do: 223
1.25 Verb Tense Agreement 223
1.25.1 Past Tense 223
1.25.2 Present Tense 224
1.25.3 Literary Analysis 224
1.25.4 Conditional Tenses 224
1.26 Verb Moods 225
1.26.1 Technical Writing 225
1.26.2 Subjunctive Usage 225
1.26.3 Recommendations and Decisions 226
1.27 Consistency of Tense / Mood 226
1.28 Sentence Classification 226
1.29 Compound Sentence 227
1.30 Comma Placement 228
1.31 Relationship of Clauses 229
1.32 Length of Compound Sentences 229
1.33 Compound Without Coordinating Conjunction 229
1.34 Use of the Semi-Colon 230
1.35 Excessively Long Compound Sentences 230
1.36 Comma Splice 231
1.37 Conjunctive Adverb 231
1.38 Position of the Conjunctive Adverb 231
1.39 Complex Sentences 232
1.40 Relative Position of Clauses 232

Words 235
2.1 Slang 235
2.2 Colloquialisms 235
2.3 Names in Formal Writing 236
2.4 References to Authors in Analytical Writing 236
2.5 Colloquialism and Nicknames 236
2.6 Appropriateness of Tone 236
2.7 Gender 237
Author’s Note 238
2.8 Euphemisms / Jargon 238
2.9 Wishy-Washy Words 239
2.10 Technical Slang / Abbreviations 239
2.11 Be Concise 239
2.12 Simplicity of Expression 240
2.13 Unnecessary Repetition 240
2.14 Proper Use of Synonyms 241
2.15 Spelling 241
2.16 “I” Before “E” 241
2.17 Frequently Misused Words 241
2.18 Plural Noun Forms 252
2.19 Foreign-Derived Word Plurals 252
English Word 253
English Plural 253
Foreign Plural 253
2.20 Plurals with Apostrophe 253
2.21 Possessive Nouns 254
2.22 Singular Possessives Ending in Y 254
2.23 Possessive Pronouns 254
2.24 Possessives Using “Of” 254
2.25 Contractions or Omissions 255
2.26 Misuse of the Apostrophe 255
2.27 Compound Adjectives Using the Hyphen 255
2.28 No Hyphen Needed 256
2.29 The Hyphen as a Link 256
2.30 The Hyphen as Break 256
2.31 Compound Numbers 256
2.32 Abbreviations 257
2.33 Capitalization of Abbreviations 257
2.34 Standardization of Abbreviations 257
2.35 Abbreviation Usage 258
2.36 Abbreviations to Avoid 258
2.37 Abbreviation of Units 258
2.38 Periods in Abbreviations 258
2.39 Scientific Abbreviations 259
2.40 Spacing in Units and Abbreviations 259
2.41 Abbreviations in Formal Non-Technical Writing 259
2.41.1 BC, AD, CE, a.m., p.m., $, p. 259
2.41.2 Mr, Mrs, Ms, Miss, Dr, Messrs 259
2.41.3 Placement of Honorary Abbreviations 260
2.42 Abbreviations in Titles 260
2.43 Abbreviation of Dates and Addresses 260
2.44 Abbreviation of Units of Measurement 260
2.45 Capitalization 260
2.46 Capitalization of Specific Place or Object 261
2.47 Brand Names 261
2.48 Capitalization of Headings and Titles 262
2.49 Capitalization of Seasons, Relationships, Subject Areas 262
2.50 Capital after a Colon 262
2.51 Capitalization of a Quote 262
2.52 Capitalization of Lists 263
2.53 Use of Italics in Titles 263
2.54 Italics Indicate Entire Work 263
2.55 Quotation Marks for Titles of Short Works 264
2.56 Titles of Books Included in an Anthology 264
2.57 Additional Title Rules 264
2.57.1 Articles 264
2.57.2 Book Title within a Book Title 264
2.57.3 Quotation Marks within a Title 264
2.57.4 Title within an Essay Title 265
2.58 Be Clear About Titles vs. Names of Characters, Places, or Objects 265
2.59 Use of Numbers 265
2.60 Specific Number Usages 265
2.60.1 Date, Time, Money, Fractions, Percents, Scores, Units, Ages 265
2.60.2 Approximate Numbers and Stand-Alone Fractions 265
2.60.3 Numbers at the Beginning of a Sentence or List 266
2.60.4 Keep Numerical Figures Distinct 266
2.60.5 Items Identified by Number 266
2.61 Special Problems 266
2.61.1 Fractions and Decimals 266
2.61.2 Decimal Numbers Less than One 266
2.61.3 Punctuation of Numbers 266

Basic Punctuation 267
3.1 Sentence Ending Punctuation 267
3.2 Commas in Clauses 267
3.3 Non-Restrictive Modifiers 268
3.4 Omit Punctuation of Essential Restrictive Modifiers 269
3.5 Punctuation of Essential Names and Titles 269
3.6 Punctuation of Non-Restrictive Modifiers 270
3.7 Punctuation of Non-Restrictive Clauses 270
3.8 Punctuation of Parenthetical Comments and Conjunctive Adverbs 270
3.9 Punctuation of Items in a Parallel List 270
3.10 Use of Semi-Colons in a Parallel List 271
3.11 Punctuation in a List of Two 271
3.12 Punctuation of Coordinate Adjectives 271
3.13 Punctuation in a List of Adjectives Before a Noun 271
3.14 Punctuation of Dates 272
3.15 Writing Numerical Dates 272
3.16 Writing the Date in Words 272
3.17 Using Month and Year Only 272
3.18 Writing Times 273
3.19 Punctuation of Addresses 273
3.20 Punctuation of Address in a Business Letter 273
3.21 Use of the Colon Between Clauses 273
3.22 Use of the Colon in a List 273
3.23 The Colon in a Clause 274
3.23.1 Omit a Colon Between a Verb and its Object 274
3.23.2 Omit the Colon after a Present Participle 274
3.23.3 Omit the Colon after a Preposition 274
3.24 Other Uses of the Colon 274
3.24.1 Use of the Colon as Introduction 275
3.24.2 Use of the Colon to Separate Title and Subtitle 275
3.24.3 Use of the Colon for Division of Numbers 275
3.24.4 Use of the Colon in Bible References 275
3.25 Use of the Colon in a Business Salutation 275
3.26 Omit Colon at End of Heading 275
3.27 Use of the Dash 276
3.28 How to Indicate a Dash in Typing 276
3.29 Use of Brackets 276
3.30 Always Use Brackets in Pairs 276
3.31 Use of Brackets within Brackets 276
3.32 Avoid Unnecessary Punctuation 277
3.32.1 Use of the Single Comma in a Clause 277
3.32.2 Use of the Comma in Quotations 277
3.32.3 Use of the Semi-Colon 277
3.33 Use of the Quotation Mark 278
3.34 Punctuation of a Quotation in a Sentence 278
3.35 Punctuation Inside Quotation Marks 279
3.36 Punctuation Before Quotations 280
3.37 Punctuation of Speaker Attribution within a Quotation 280
3.38 Quotations of Three Lines or Less 281
3.39 Quotations of More than Three Lines 281
3.40 Spacing in Quotations 281
3.42 Line Endings in Poetry Quotations of Three Lines or Fewer 282
3.43 Poetry Quotations of More than Three Lines 282
3.44 Line Endings of Poetry Set in a Separate Paragraph 282
3.45 Line Endings in Prose Quotations 282
3.46 Accuracy of Quotations 283
3.47 Use of Quotations Marks for Slang 283
3.48 Use of the Ellipsis 283
3.49 How to Indicate Omission of Words from a Quotation 283
3.50 Use of the Ellipsis with Short, Separate Omissions 284
3.51 Omission of Lines of Poetry 284
3.52 Selection and Framing of Quotations 285
3.53 Use of the Ellipsis in the Introduction of Quotations 285
3.54 Use of Square Brackets in for Writer Comments 285
3.55 Use of Italics for Emphasis in a Quotation 286
3.56 Limits on Use of Square Brackets 286
3.57 Use of Single Quotation Marks 286
3.58 Single and Double Quotation Marks at the End of a Quote 286
3.59 Do Not Substitute Single for Double Quotation Marks 287
3.60 Use of Block Quotations from a Play 287

Pronouns 289
4.1 Use of the Pronoun 289
4.2 A Pronoun Must Refer to a Specific Noun 289
4.3 Use of Nouns with This, That, Which 290
4.4 Provide an Antecedent for Which 290
4.5 Avoid General Use of Your 290
4.6 Avoid General Use of It 291
4.7 Every Pronoun Must Have a Specific Antecedent 291
4.8 Pronouns Must Agree with Antecedents 292
4.9 Use of Singular Pronouns 292
4.10 Use of Gender in Pronouns 292
4.10.1 Plural Pronouns for People in General 293
4.10.2 Alternate Singular Pronouns for People in General 293
4.10.3 Avoid Compound Gender Expressions 293
4.11 Pronoun Usage for Each, Every, Somebody, Someone, Anyone, Everybody 293
4.12 Use of Group Nouns 294
4.13 Use of Collective Group Nouns 294
4.14 Pronouns that Change Form 294
Subject Form 294
Object Form 294

Possessive Form 294
4.15 Use of Who, Whom, Whose 295
4.16 Use of Who, Whom, and Whose in Relative Clauses 295
4.17 Use of Restrictive Relative Clauses 295

Parallelism Or Parallel Structure 297
5.1 Parallelism in a List of Nouns 297
5.2 Maintain Parallel Form 297
5.3 Parallelisms in a List of Two 298
5.4 Parallelism with Two or More Dependent Clauses 298
5.5 Parallelism in a Vertical List 299
5.6 Parallelism in Definitions 299
5.7 Parallelism in Reporting 299
5.8 Parallelism in a Numbered List 300
5.9 Omit and in a Vertical List 300
5.10 Punctuation and Brackets in a List 300
5.11 Use of Margins in a Vertical List 300
5.12 Begin a Vertical List on a New Line 301
5.13 Capitalization of a Vertical List 301
5.14 Parallelism in the Use of Ordinals 301
5.15 Use of Parallel Coordinators 302

Modifiers, Gerunds, Infinitives 303
6.1 Use of Modifiers 303
6.2 Frequently Misused Modifiers 303
6.3 Use of the Comparative Form of a Modifier 304
6.4 Compare Only Comparable Items 304
6.5 Use of the Superlative Form In the Comparison of Two Items 305
6.6 Modification of Absolute Adjectives 305
6.7 Placement of Modifiers 306
6.8 Placement of Dates, Times, and Places 306
6.9 Use of Only and Merely 306
6.10 Use of the Participle 307
6.11 Use of Gerunds 308
6.12 Use of the Gerund with a Noun or Pronoun 309
6.13 Avoid Dangling Modifiers 309
6.14 Avoid Passive Verbs 310
6.15 Avoid Dangling Infinitives 310
6.16 The Infinitive as Subject or Object 311
6.17 Use of Split Infinitives 311

Clarity, Logic, and Structure 313
7.1 Use the Right Word 313
7.2 Avoid Colloquial Superlatives 313
7.3 Use Appropriate Vocabulary 314
7.4 Use Precise, Vivid Words 314
7.5 Words that Express Logical Relationships or Transitions 316
7.6 Use of As 316
7.7 Use of Transitions 316
7.8 Use Simple Sentences 317
7.9 Avoid “Is Where” and “Is When” 318
7.10 Usage of “Is Because” 318
7.11 Define Key Terms 318
7.12 Match Tone of Conclusion to Quality of Evidence 319
7.13 Avoid Generalizations 320
7.14 Base Conclusions on Sufficient Evidence 320
7.15 Use Reliable, Supportable Evidence 321
7.16 Citing Secondary Sources 322
7.17 Cite Specific Authorities and Sources 322
7.18 Avoid Unfounded Authoritative Statements 323
7.19 Use of Analogies 323
7.20 Avoid False Dichotomy 323
7.21 Coincidence Does Not Prove Causation 324
7.22 Straw Man Argument 324
7.23 Use of Red Herrings 324
7.24 Avoid Unsupported Assumptions 325
7.25 Avoid Circular Arguments 325
7.26 Use of the Opening Paragraph 326
7.26.1 Include Adequate Introductory Information 326
7.26.2 Narrow the Essay Focus 327
7.26.3 Thesis in an Argumentative Essay 327
7.26.4 Make Thesis Specific and Opinionated 327
7.26.5 Define the Argument in the Thesis 327
7.27 Use of Deductive Argument 327
7.28 Do Not Argue Using Personal Attack 328
7.29 Principle of Inclusiveness 328
7.30 Prefer Simple Arguments 329
7.31 Consistency in Interpretation of Evidence 329
7.32 Consistency in Argumentation 329
7.33 Three Elements of a Quality Argument 329
7.33.1 Topic Sentences 330
7.33.2 Use of Reliable Evidence 330
7.33.2 Always Interpret Evidence 330
7.34 Use of Quotations 330
7.35 Discuss Quotes Used as Evidence 331
7.36 Fabricated or Irrelevant Evidence 331
7.37 Avoid Excessive Examples 331
7.38 Use of Argument in Reviews 332
7.39 Avoid Subjective Evidence 333
7.40 Analysis of Poetry 333
7.41 Identifying the Speaker of a Poem 334
7.42 Plagiarism 334
7.42.1 Copying 334
7.42.2 Borrowing 334
7.42.3 Citations Within the Text 335
7.42.4 Internet Plagiarism 335

References And Bibliographies 337
8.1 Use of References 337
8.2 Citation Methods 338
8.3 Parenthetic Reference or Footnote Systems 338
8.4 Use of a Bibliography 338
8.4.1 Use Only One List of References 339
8.4.2 Use Exact Formatting 339
8.5 Use Specific Format References 339
8.6 Use of MLA and APA Systems 339
Directory of Specific MLA and APA Citations 340
8.7 Reference to a Quotation from a Text With a Named Author 341
8.7.1 Pagination of Internet Sources 341
8.7.2 APA Citation of Reprinted Works 342
8.7.3 APA Citation of a Multi-Volume Work 342
8.8 Information to Include In-Text Reference 342
8.9 Standard APA Reference with no Quoted Material 343
8.10 Reference (APA and MLA) to Text with No Named Author 343
8.11 Reference to the Bible 344
8.12 Reference to Poems 344
8.13 Punctuation of In-Text Citations 344
8.14 Formatting of Long Quotations 345
8.15 Reference to Two Authors with the Same Surname (MLA and APA) 346
8.16 Reference to Different Works by the Same Author (MLA and APA) 346
8.17 Reference to Quoted Material from a Book not By the Author of the Quotation 346
8.18 Reference to a Text with Two Authors (MLA and APA) 347
8.19 Reference to a Text with more than Two Authors 348
8.20 Reference to Classic Plays (MLA) 348
8.21 Reference to Long Classic Poems 349
8.22 Frequency of Title Repetition in Citations 349
8.23 Combining Several Different References into One Reference 349
8.24 Comma Use in Page References 349
8.25 Reference to a Multi-volume Work (MLA and APA) 349
8.26 Reference to a Classic Work of Prose (MLA) 350
8.27 Reference to an Interview or Personal Communication 350
8.28 Reference to a Corporate or Institutional Author 350
8.29 Reference to a Legal Source 351
8.30 Reference to an Electronic Source (MLA and APA) 351
Additional Notes on Citations 351
8.31 References to Other Sources 351
8.32 Use of Footnotes with In-Text References 351
8.32.1 Explanatory Footnotes 352
8.32.2 Reference Footnotes 352
8.32.3 Numbering of Footnotes 352
8.32.4 Order of Footnotes 352
8.32.5 Formatting of Footnotes 352
8.32.6 Indenting of Footnotes 352
8.33 Formatting of the List of Sources 353
8.33.1 Alphabetization 353
8.33.2 Spacing 353
8.33.3 Page Numbers 353
8.33.4 Titles 353
8.33.5 354
8.33.6 Author’s Name 354
8.33.7 Publication Date 354
8.33.8 Capitalization 354
8.33.9 Titles of Short Works 355
8.33.10 Spacing After Punctuation 355
8.33.11 Indenting 355
8.34 Formatting of Common Entries in List of Sources 356
8.35 Book with a Single Author 357
8.35.1 Reprinted Book 358
8.35.2 New Edition of a Book 358
8.36 Book with more than One Author 358
8.37 Book with an Author and an Editor or Only an Editor 359
8.38 Article, Short Story, Essay, or Poem from an Anthology 361
8.38.1 Reprint from an Anthology 362
8.39 Multi-volume Work 362
8.40 Book with Corporate, Government, or Group Authorship 363
8.41 Article from an Academic Journal or Magazine 364
8.42 Article, Editorial, or Letter from a Newspaper 366
8.43 Citing Two or More Works by the Same Author 368
8.43.1 Ordering of Entries 368
8.43.2 C0-Written Articles 368
8.43.3 Chronological Listing of Entries 369
8.44 Text Translated into English from Another Language 369
8.45 Book Without a Named Author 370
8.46 Review of a Book, Record, or Film 370
8.47 Article from an Encyclopedia 371
8.48 Personal Interview, Telephone Call, or Letter 371
8.49 Laws, Statutes, Legal Decisions 372
8.50 Material Quoted in Secondary Source 372
8.51 Citing the Bible 373
8.52 Film or Videotape 373
8.53 Television or Radio Program 373
8.54 Records, Tapes, CD’s, Live Performances 374
8.54.1 Live Performance 374
8.55 Electronic Sources 375
8.55.1 Listing URLs 375
8.55.2 Personal Web Site or Blog 375
8.55.3 e-Book 376
8.55.4 Article in a Reference Database 377
8.55.5 Article from Article Index Database 378
8.55.5 Electronic Journal or Magazine Article 378
8.55.6 E-Mail 380
8.55.7 Poetry Online 380
8.56 Lecture or Speech 380
8.57 Work of Art 381
8.58 Article on Microfilm or Microfiche 381
8.59 Authors with Foreign Names 382
8.60 Sample Lists of Works Cited (MLA and APA) 382
8.61 Primary Source Details 384

Basic Format for Essays and Research Papers 385

9.1 Basic Computer Formatting 385
9.1.1 Non-Standard Fonts and Sizes 385
9.1.2 Margins 385
9.1.3 Paper Selection 385
9.2 Use a Precise Title 386
9.3 Format of the Title Page 386
9.4 Spacing 386
9.5 Numbering 386
9.6 Basic Formatting Principles 387
9.6.1 Single Space After Punctuation 387
9.6.2 Spacing with Various Punctuation 387
9.6.3 Use of Multiple Punctuation Marks 387
9.7 Foreign Characters 387
9.8 Math and Science Symbols 387
9.9 Headings and Subheadings 387
9.9.1 Capitalization of Titles 388
9.9.2 Heading Styles 388
9.9.3 Headings at the End of a Page 388
9.9.4 Use of Text Between Heading and Subheading 388
9.9.5 Special Formatting 388
9.10 Use of Illustrative Material 388
9.10.1 Placement of Illustrations 388
9.10.2 Quantity and Detail of Illustrations 389
9.10.3 Place Illustration with Accompanying Text 389
9.10.4 Number and Caption 389
9.10.5 Labels and Keys 389
9.10.6 Sizing of Illustrations 389
9.10.7 Geometrical Figures 390
9.10.8 Indicating Scale in Photographs 390
9.10.9 Numbering of Material from a Secondary Source 390
9.10.10 Indication of Photograph Angle 390

Writer’s Handbook table of contents excerpted from the Excellence in Literature Handbook for Writers.

(c) 2011 Everyday Education, LLC

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1 Response

  1. December 7, 2011

    […] short while, you’ll be able to order a beta version of the e-book. Read more about it on the Handbook for Writers […]

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